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Discover How We Make Zhengshantang Black Tea

Discover How We Make Zhengshantang Black Tea

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What is WEST LAKE DRAGON WELL

What is WEST LAKE DRAGON WELL

West Lake Longjing(Xihu longjing) is the most famous green tea in China. It is produced in the mountains around Longjing Village, West Lake, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, and has a history of more than 1,200 years.

West Lake Longjing has been famous for nearly a thousand years.

As early as the Tang Dynasty, Lu Yu's "Tea Classic" recorded: "Qiantang tea was born in Tianzhu and Lingyin temples."

Judging from the records in Lu Yu's "Tea Classic" in the Tang Dynasty and Lin'an Sanzhi in the Southern Song Dynasty, during the Tang and Song Dynasties, Longjing tea was divided into three types according to the tea production area: "Baiyun tea白云茶", "Xianglin tea香林茶" and "Baoyun tea

宝云茶", basically located in the present Lingyin灵隐, Tianzhu天竺 and Geling葛岭 areas.

In the 26th year of Jiajing (1547) of the Ming Dynasty, "West Lake Tourism Records" recorded that "on the top of Longjing is the old Longjing, and the tea produced in it is the best product in the two mountains", which is the earliest record of Longjing tea found so far.
When did "Longjing Tea" gain its reputation? It is generally believed that it began in the middle and late Ming Dynasty. Since then, "Dragon Well" refers specifically to the tea produced in Longjing or the Qiantang River area. At the same time, many poems with the title of "Dragon Well Tea" or "Tea of Dragon Well" began to appear.
It was not until the late Ming Dynasty that the name of Longjing was gradually confirmed, while historically famous teas such as "Baoyun tea, Xianglin tea, and Baiyun tea" gradually disappeared. After the Ming Dynasty, the planting area of Longjing tea gradually expanded.
In the Qing Dynasty, Longjing tea became famous. Among them, the story of Emperor Qianlong and Longjing tea is undoubtedly the most colorful stroke in the development history of Longjing tea. In the 16th year of Qianlong, the 22nd year of Qianlong, the 27th year of Qianlong, and the 30th year of Qianlong, Emperor Qianlong visited the south of the Yangtze River four times, looking for Longjing tea in West Lake again and again, and personally wrote "Eight Scenes of Dragon Well", arranged 18 tea trees as "Royal Tea".
Since then, West Lake Longjing has become famous in the southeast. Today, when you visit Hangzhou, you must have a pot of Longjing tea.
Around the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, the four traditional font names of Lion, Dragon, Cloud, and Tiger appeared. The name of "Yun" was produced in Yunqi and Wuyunshan areas, and the name of "Tiger" was produced in the area of Hupao. After the area of Meijiawu increased, the name of Mei was listed separately from the name of Yun, so there were later lions, dragons, clouds, tigers and mei five font sizes.

What is a real good Longjing tea?

/Authentic Longjing Tea /

Color: Green
The forest is foggy and humid all year round, which makes the diffuse light that is conducive to the synthesis and accumulation of aromatic substances, amino acids and other substances in the tea leaves particularly sufficient. The tea made can be described as "green in color, sweet in taste, and fragrant." The tea buds have been accumulated for a winter, and they are fresh and plump, full of amino acids. The moment Longjing spring tea hits the water, the green tea sprouts out, as if everything is growing rapidly in front of your eyes, and you really feel the arrival of summer in your heart.
Fragrance: Strong
The fragrance of Longjing tea is atmospheric and brilliant, just like the city that raised it—the south of the Yangtze river where the flowers are better than the fire, and the mist and rain are wrapped in it.
It is the time when the temperature is suddenly falling, and the light rain is pattering. I can’t help thinking that the continuous tea hills in Hangzhou are slowly growing in the mist. floral. More specifically, the typical flavor of Longjing can be described as a signature natural tender bean flower fragrance - elegant and pleasant, similar to the fragrance of clear flowers and tender beans when sniffing legumes in spring.
Taste: Sweet
The spring tea in the south of the Yangtze River, Longjing focuses on the word "fresh". On average, 40,000 buds and leaves can be roasted to make 1 catties of finished product. When it enters the throat, it has an indescribably mellow and fresh taste, and the beauty and fresh taste of spring spreads in the mouth.
Shape: Beautiful
Longjing tea, which is clear and charming, is brewed in a transparent cup, and the leaves stand up one by one in the cup, like a delicate little girl. Pour clear water, stretched transparently, just like a green dance. The dry tea is brown beige or yellow-green, straight and pointed, flat and handsome, and the buds are erect.

/ Producing Area/

Today, the total area of Longjing tea production area is about 15km². The annual output of West Lake Longjing tea is about 800 to 1,000 tons, but the sales volume is as high as more than 3,000 tons.
Under such circumstances, it will take a lot of trouble to find a cup of "true" Longjing original tea. In the mountain field of the tea area formed by the microclimate, although Yifeng and Yiyuan have the same name as Longjing tea, they are also beautiful in terms of geographical attributes and variety attributes because of their different growth environments.
The production area of Longjing tea can be divided into three major production areas: West Lake西湖, Qiantang钱塘 and Yuezhou越州.

West Lake Area.

Today, the core production area of West Lake Longjing is divided into five major brands of "Lion, Dragon, Cloud, Tiger and Plum"“狮龙云虎梅”.
The "Lion" name refers to the Longjing tea produced in Shifeng Mountain, which is of the best quality. There is a poem by the ancients that "the number of famous teas in the world is Longjing, and the top grade of Longjing is in Shifeng".
The name "Dragon" refers to the Longjing tea produced in the area of Longjing Mountain, which is of good natural quality.
The "Cloud" name refers to the Yunqi云栖area, and the style of the West Lake Longjing tea of the Mei brand is basically the same, because they are originally a family.
The most notable feature of the "Tiger" font size is: the buds and leaves are fat and the buds are exposed.
The "Plum" brand is produced in Meijiawu, and its tea production accounts for one-third of the total first-level production areas, which is well-known.
In order to better establish a standard system, the five large fonts were merged and three standard samples of West Lake Longjing were established. Among the Longjing teas, only the tea produced within 168 square kilometers of the West Lake production area can be called West Lake Longjing. It occupies the golden tea-producing belt at 30 degrees north latitude, and is rare and expensive among the three major producing areas.
That is, Shifeng Longjing (Shifeng Mountain + Longjing Mountain), Meiwu Longjing (Meijiawu + Yunqi) and West Lake Longjing (Hupao + other sporadic production areas).The tea produced in Qiantang and Yuezhou can only be called Longjing tea or Zhejiang Longjing tea.

/Tree species classification/

The tea tree varieties of West Lake Longjing are roughly divided into three categories, Longjing group species龙井群体种, Longjing 43龙井43, and Longjing Changye龙井长叶.
Longjing group species: also known as soil tea. It is an old tea tree variety born from the germination of seeds. The germination time is relatively late, and it is rich in substances. The produced Longjing incense is beautiful in color, round and round in yellow and emerald green, and has a distinct aroma of orchid beans.
Longjing 43: a national-level early-maturing clonal variety bred from the group species. It is the first tea variety that can be harvested in West Lake Longjing. It was selected from the Longjing group species. Now Longjing 43 tea tree varieties are in the West Lake production area It accounts for about 30% to 40%, 7-10 days earlier than the group species.
Longjing Changye: It was bred from Longjing species by the Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from 1960 to 1987 using the single-plant breeding method.
There is also the Wuniuzao variety produced in Zhejiang, which is a flat and straight fried green tea. It looks like West Lake Longjing, so it is easy to confuse it.

/How to choose high-quality West Lake Longjing/

Today, the total area of Longjing tea production area is about 14985 km². The annual output of West Lake Longjing tea is about 800 to 1,000 tons, but the sales volume is as high as more than 3,000 tons. It is quite difficult to find the authentic West Lake Longjing in the crowded market.
Starting in 2020, the Hangzhou West Lake Longjing Tea Industry Association has formulated new management measures. All tea companies and tea farmers in the West Lake production area must affix anti-counterfeiting labels. The Tea Industry Association calculates the approximate production capacity and issues the certificate of origin of West Lake Longjing tea. When purchasing West Lake Longjing tea, you must check whether there is this certification mark.
Zhao Chen
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What is Gaiwan, the Past and Present

What is Gaiwan, the Past and Present

In the history of Chinese tea sets, gaiwan is a young utensil that is still widely used today.

Our common tureen generally has two shapes: the first one: In the "Chinese Tea Dictionary" by Academician Chen Zongmao, the tureen is explained as "cooking utensils, mostly porcelain, with a cover on the top and a saucer on the bottom, and the heat insulation of the saucer is easy to hold." drink". What is described here is a three-piece gaiwan-shaped system with a cover on the top, a support on the bottom, and a bowl in the middle. The cover is "heaven", the bowl is "person", and the support is "earth".

The three talents of "heaven, earth and man". This type of tureen is also called the Sancai Cup, which means "Three Talents, Heaven, Earth and Man". There is also a style of tureen, which is a two-piece bowl and cover-only the cover and the bowl. It is explained in the "Chinese Ancient Ceramics Illustrated": Gaiwan, a small bowl with a cover, tea set, popular in Qing Dynasty.

 

sang yuanheng
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What is cloudy after cold in black tea?

What is cloudy after cold in black tea?

what is a cloudy after cold? I don't know if you have noticed a phenomenon. When we are making tea, especially black tea, we pour a cup of black tea for tea friends in the tea room. If the tea friends don’t drink it in time, after the tea soup is cold, we will find that the original orange-yellow and bright soup color will turn a little turbid. So this is what we call cloudy after cold.

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What is Jinjunmei?

What is Jinjunmei?

In 2005, Mr. Jiang Yuanxun(江元勋) led the team developing Jinjunmei used the buds of high mountain tea trees in Tongmu Village, Wuyishan National Nature Reserve as raw materials, based on the more than 400-year-old Lapsang Souchong black tea culture and production techniques.


The creation of Jin Junmei is not accidental. It is inseparable from the previous generations of tea masters Wu Juenong(吴觉农) and Zhang Tianfu(张天福) who had contacts with Jiang Yuanxun’s grandfather Jiang Runmei(江润梅) and father Jiang Susheng(江素生), as well as contemporary tea masters Luo Shaojun(骆少君) and Yao Yueming(姚月明). The selfless help and support in technical theory; it is inseparable from Jiang Yuanxun and a group of developers and producers who have devoted themselves to exploration in Zhengshan(Lapsang) Tea Industry.

Time goes back to before 2000, in order to solve the unsalable and barren tea mountains of Tongmu tea and develop the domestic market, Jiang Yuanxun organized many tea masters to discuss "the way out of Tongmu tea" for many times.

From 1998 to 2000, a large number of Tongmu black tea was transformed into oolong; from 2002 to 2003, Jiang Yuanxun, under the suggestion of tea master Ms. Gong Yaling, made high-quality green tea from the tender buds in Tongmu village. These have laid a good foundation and experience for the generation and accumulation of Jin Junmei in 2005.

One afternoon in July 2005, Jiang Yuanxun chatted with Beijing Mr. Zhang Mengjiang and other friends in the small bamboo grove in front of the Zhengshan Tea Industry Court, such as "making good tea, drinking good tea, and buying good tea". The speaker has no intention, but the listener has the intention, these coincide with Jiang Yuanxun's train of thought.

Just at this time, a few tea farmers passed by the door to clean up the tea garden (pruning). Jiang Yuanxun immediately arranged for the tea farmers to pick tea buds and make full use of them; It is withered according to the black tea production process. Because the material is less, it is hand-rolled with a glass table top to prevent it from breaking, and it is fermented with temperature and humidity control, and charcoal roasted to obtain dry tea.

On the second day, Jiang Yuanxun brewed and tasted together with Mr. Zhang and others. When boiling water rushes in, the room is full of fragrance, the soup color is golden and translucent, the taste is sweet and refreshing, moistens the throat, and has a long aftertaste. "The embryonic form.

Later, under the guidance of Zhang Tianfu, Luo Shaojun and other seniors in the tea industry, Jiang Yuanxun conducted repeated tests, analyzes and comparisons on raw materials and techniques, and finally finalized Jinjunmei in 2006. In 2007, after Jiang Yuanxun further optimized the quality and perfected the craftsmanship according to the feedback from the tasting, Jinjunmei was officially put on the market. The taste of "clear, fragrant, sweet and sweet" is in line with the habit of domestic clear drinks, and it is quickly accepted by the Chinese people. It is high-quality and high-quality, and it has become popular all over the country within a few years.

In order to regulate the market, the All China Supply and Marketing Cooperative issued the "Jinjunmei Industry Standards", and Zhengshan Tea Industry, the founding enterprise of Jinjunmei, participated in the drafting and formulation as the only enterprise. This standard can be said to be a standard recognized in the industry, specifically for Jinjunmei black tea. "Jinjunmei Industry Standard" stipulates:

The raw materials of Jinjunmei must come from single buds of alpine tea trees in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve.

In addition, there is no grade for Jinjunmei. Most of the super-grade Jinjunmei and first-grade Jinjunmei on the market are classified by the merchants themselves.

The standard also clearly stipulates that the authentic dry tea of Jinjunmei is golden, yellow and black, with golden hair; the aroma belongs to the comprehensive aroma of flower and fruit honey, which is relatively long-lasting; the soup color is golden and clear, with golden rings, and the taste is fresh Cool and sweet.

The founding of Jinjunmei filled the gap that there was no high-end black tea in the world for 400 years, triggered a domestic black tea consumption boom, promoted the development of the entire black tea industry, and led to the recovery of the domestic black tea industry.

The founding of Jinjunmei is an overall innovation in black tea production technology, drinking requirements and professional appraisal, which completely changed the characteristics of traditional black tea "thick, red, bitter and astringent", and brought black tea into a new development period.

Jinjunmei and Lapsang Souchong are in the same line. If we say that Lapsang Souchong is a product discovered by accident, the creation of Jinjunmei is entirely due to the continuous inheritance and innovation of the history, culture and production techniques of Lapsang Souchong black tea for more than 400 years. Fusion is inevitable.

Jin Junmei is a re-innovation of the excellent production techniques of Lapsang Souchong black tea. The profound historical and cultural heritage of Lapsang Souchong, the unique ecological environment and tea tree resources of Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, the exquisite production techniques, and the representative of Jiang Yuanxun The professionalism, persistence and enterprising spirit of continuous exploration of a group of tea people are the cornerstone of Jinjunmei's founding, the basis for creating Jinjunmei's excellent quality, and the key to the recognition of the society and the tea industry.

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What is Lapsang Souchong?

What is Lapsang Souchong?

  1. Origin of Lapsang Souchong Black Tea
As the ancestor of black tea in the world, Lapsang Souchong has a history of more than 400 years since its birth. According to historical records, Tongmu was called Renyi Township, Chongan County in the Song Dynasty, and the main source of income for the laborers here was tung oil and green tea-like "longtuanfengbing" tribute tea. Due to the prosperity of tung oil production, a large number of tung trees are planted locally. Affected by the development of tung oil, the place name of this area is Tongmu, which is also the gateway to and the Jiang family of Zhengshantang has lived here for generations.
In the middle and late Ming Dynasty, the current situation was turbulent. On a certain day in about 1568 A.D., during the tea-picking season, a group of officers and soldiers passed Tongmu. The officers and soldiers slept on the green tea. After the officers and soldiers left, the tea leaves that were originally made into green tea had turned red. Mr. Jiang repeatedly rubbed the fermented tea leaves and roasted them with masson pine, which is rich in paulownia. Masson pine produces rich pine smoke during the burning process. After absorbing the pine smoke, the color of the tea becomes black and oily, exuding a unique aroma of turpentine. In the second year, someone ordered this tea several times the price of green tea. Lapsang Souchong black tea was born in such a wonderful way.
At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century (about 1604), Lapsang Souchong was spread overseas and brought to Europe by Dutch merchants. At first, it was sold in pharmacies for its healing properties, while no other black tea in the world was born at this time. Lapsang Souchong entered the UK, and it was sold to the public at a coffee shop in London called Javid, and the price was as high as 6 to 10 pounds. It said in the sales poster: mild texture, suitable for all seasons, hygienic and healthy drinks, and prolong life The effect. But then black tea became popular among the British royal family and even the whole of Europe, and set off the "afternoon tea" fashion that has been passed down to this day.
William Ukers' "Tea Complete Book" records: In 1607, the Dutch East India Company purchased Wuyi black tea (namely Lapsang Souchong) from Macau in the south of China's Lingnan for the first time in 1607, and re-exported it to Europe through Java. At that time, the European tea market was dominated by Japanese green tea. Lapsang souchong had a mellow flavor and quickly occupied the European tea market. Black tea quickly became popular in the British Isles. This is the earliest record of tea export to China.
tea book
In 1876, Keemun black tea was successfully trial-produced on the basis of Lapsang Souchong black tea. Subsequently, Gongfu black teas from all over China also followed the Lapsang Souchong process, and gradually developed Dianhong black tea, Fujian black tea and other local Gongfu black teas.
  1. Why is it called Lapsang Souchong Black Tea?
The term "Lapsang Souchong" black tea was first called BOHEA in Europe. According to legend, it is the Hokkien pronunciation of the place name of Wuyi. Black tea (artificial or smoked) disrupted the market, so it was named "Lapsang Souchong".
The so-called "Zhengshan" means what is produced in the real high mountain area. Its coverage is centered on Miaowan and Jiangdun Natural Villages in Tongmu Village, Wuyi Mountain, north to Shilong, Qianshan, Jiangxi, south to Baiyeping, Caodun, Wuyi Mountain, east to Da'an Village, Wuyi Mountain, west to Guangshiqian Qiankeng, and southwest to Shaowu Long Lake Guanyin Pit covers an area of 600 square kilometers. Most of them are now in the Wuyishan National Nature Reserve in Fujian. The soil is fertile, and the quality of the tea produced is unmatched.
miaowan, tongmu village
"Souchong" refers to the variety of tea trees. Lu Tingcan's "Continued Tea Classics" contains "Suitable Records" and mentions: "Wuyi tea, the one on the mountain is rock tea, the one by the water is Zhou tea,...the best one is called Gongfu tea. After a lot of work, there are small species, which are named after the tree. Each plant is only a few, and it is rare."
  1. Production of Lapsang Souchong
picking teaWitherKnead teafermentationdry
At Tongmu Pass in Wuyi Mountain, there are two wooden buildings named "Qinglou", which are factories specially used to make Lapsang Souchong black tea.
In the past, it was necessary to pick one bud and three or four leaves as raw materials for the production of Lapsang Souchong, and it was not picked in rainy days, dewy leaves, scorching sun, or rainy the day before. The tea trees in Tongmu Mountain are wild and mixed. Even the most skilled tea pickers can only pick back 10 kg of tea greens a day.
The picked fresh leaves are spread out on wooden boards or bamboo strips in an orderly manner, and the weather, temperature, humidity, and wind are used to distribute the water in the leaves, making the green tea soft and kneading into strips. Use masson pine wood to burn to control the temperature during withering. Every 30 minutes, the green tea is collected again and spread out again, so that each green tea can be spread evenly.
When 50kg of fresh leaves remove 20 kg of water, it is the best time to knead. Kneading is not only to shape the beautiful shape of tea, but also to destroy cells and accelerate oxidation.
Fermentation is the most critical process to form the characteristics of black tea color, aroma and taste. In the bamboo tea basket, cover with a damp cloth and wait for seven hours, the tea leaves will change from green to bronze, and the aroma will become more leisurely.
Passing the red pot is a unique process in Lapsang Souchong. The high temperature of 180 degrees prevents the tea leaves from continuing to ferment, and also enhances the aroma of the tea leaves and increases the aftertaste.
Next, the green tea is spread on the bamboo strips, and the masson pine is slowly burned in the underground fire stove. The pine smoke spreads to the drying room along with the cracks in the bricks. surround. The temperature evaporates the excess water in the green tea, and also injects the final smoky aroma into Lapsang Souchong. This Lapsang Souchong black tea made with masson pine smoke has a strong aroma of pine wood and an unforgettable sweet aroma of longan.
After more than ten hours, the traditional Lapsang Souchong black tea produced in Tongmuguan was made. Under the boiling water, the aroma of pine smoke mixed with longan and the seemingly floral and fruity aroma lingers on the tip of the nose. Drinking amber tea soup, a sense of vicissitudes from time rushes to the face, moist, warm, and sweet, as if walking into a brothel deep in the mountains and dense with rosin. The slow-smoked pine fragrance lasts for a long time, and it is still full of charm after brewing many times.
qinglou
  1. What is the difference between Lapsang Souchong and Waishan Souchong
The national standard GB/T13738 of Lapsang Souchong black tea points out that: Lapsang Souchong must use tea tree raw materials within a radius of 565 square kilometers centered on Miaowan and Jiangdun Natural Villages of Tongmu Village in the Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve. The black tea is made by traditional techniques, and has the fragrance of pine smoke and dried longan.
The difference between Lapsang Souchong and Waishan Souchong lies in:
  1. Regional definition: The origin of Lapsang Souchong black tea is Tongmuguan in Wuyi Mountain. According to the "Chinese Tea Classic", "within Tongmu, there is Zhengshan". All the tea produced in Tongmuguan is called Zhengshan. The tea produced near Wuyi Mountain or other areas is called Waishan to distinguish the small species of black tea produced outside Tongmuguan.
  2. Production process requirements: Lapsang Souchong is the ancestor of black tea, and it is also the most classic and traditional tea species in black tea. The real Lapsang Souchong black tea needs to be made from high mountain tea trees in Wuyi Mountain area, with traditional techniques and through masson pine Made by natural tobacco roasting process.
  3. Differences in quality: Lapsang Souchong is a high-mountain tea with a special high-mountain flavor, mellow taste, and is resistant to brewing and storage. Most of the outer mountain Souchongs are low-mountain teas, with a thin background and not resistant to brewing.
sang yuanheng
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红茶

红茶

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The history of white tea - Lapsangstore

The history of white tea

Do you often hear such remarks: "In the past, no one drank white tea at all, and half of it was sold and half of it was given away." It is always common in the tea lovers. So today, I want to share with you the history of white tea.

一、When did white tea originate?

 

There are many different viewpoints. Among the six types of tea, white tea has the simplest production process. No twisting揉捻, no heating杀青, only withering萎凋 and drying干燥.

After the buds of the tea tree are picked, they are naturally spread out to remove most of the moisture inside the tea, and after reaching a dry and storable state, they can become the prototype of white tea. The process of drying is called "withering"萎凋, and the process of losing water is called "drying"干燥.

 

The germination of tea trees is seasonal. When there is no tea-making technology, in order to drink tea at any time, people will collect the buds and leaves of the tea tree after drying, which is the beginning of tea processing. It is very similar to the way of making herbs in the past.

Therefore, in most of the literature, historical materials and legends, both scholars and people believe that the rise of Chinese white tea benefits from the Chinese people's original concept of "medicine and food homology".

Especially in ancient times when medicine was very underdeveloped, all teas in China started from medicinal purposes.

Professor Chen Chuan(陈椽), an expert in the field of tea science, believes that "from the production process of white tea, we can see the shadow of the origin of tea making."

Professor Yang Wenhui from Hunan Agricultural University has a similar view, believing that the earliest invention in the history of Chinese tea production was not green tea, but white tea.

In the Tang and Song Dynasties, in the era of Emperor Huizong Song , there was a mention of the praise of white tea in the "Daguan Tea Theory"《大观茶论》:

"White tea is one of its own, which is different from regular tea. Its strips are thick and thin, and its leaves are thin. It's like jade in uncut stone , it's incomparable."

“白茶自为一种,与常茶不同。其条敷阐chǎn,其叶莹薄。如玉之在璞pú,它无与伦也。”

However, the white tea process did not appear in the Song Dynasty, but steamed green tea was consumed, so there is still controversy whether this white tea is similar to Anji white tea or white tea from Fujian.

After the white tea spread to Zhenghe政和, Zhenghe tea as a vassal of Beiyuan tribute tea北苑贡茶, paid tribute to the court together. In 1115 AD, after Song Huizong drank the silver needle tea from Guandi County关棣县, very happy, gave Guandi County the title of "Zhenghe". Guandi was changed to Zhenghe. Zhenghe also became the first place in Chinese history to be named by the 
Reign Title.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, in the twenty-eighth year of Wanli (1600), Lu Yingyang's陆应阳 "Guangyu Ji"《广舆记》 recorded: "Funing Prefecture Taimu Mountain is famous for its tea, named Green Snow Bud."

 “福宁州太姥山出名茶,名绿雪芽。”

There is an ancient tea tree "Green Snow Bud"绿雪芽 on the top of Hongxue Cave鸿雪洞 of Taimu Mountain in Fuding, which is considered to be the original "mother plant"母株 of Fuding White Tea.

About its origin, Fuding has a legend. According to legend, in the era of Emperor Yao尧帝时代, there was a lady named Lan蓝姑 on Taimu Mountain, who cultivated tea for her business and was very kind and charitable. And she used the green snow bud tea she planted as a good medicine for measles and saved countless children. This lady Lan is called "Taimu Niangniang" “太姥娘娘”by Fuding people, and according to legend, the green snow bud tea she planted on Taimu Mountain is the ancient white tea four thousand years ago.

However,this is a legend after all, according to the tea industry leader Mr. Zhang Tianfu张天福 in the article "Fujian Tea History Research"《福建茶史考》: "The history of white tea manufacturing began in Fuding, and then spread to Shuiji水吉 in Jianyang建阳, and then to Zhenghe. In terms of the types of tea making, there are silver needles银针 first, then white peony白牡丹, Gongmei贡眉, and Shoumei寿眉; first Xiaobai小白, then Dabai大白, and then narcissus white水仙白."

The "Investigation and Research of Fujian White Tea" 《福建白茶的调查研究》also mentions the origin of white tea It should be marked by the silver needle created in Fuding in the first year of Jiaqing in the Qing Dynasty (1796).

In Fuding, there has always been a tradition of making bud tea. In the 44th year of Wanli Ming Dynasty (1616), "Funing Zhou Zhi, Food and Goods, Gong Discrimination" 《福宁州志·食货·贡辨》records: "Bud tea is 84 catties and 12 taels, and the price is 13 taels, 2 cents and 2 cents; leaf tea is 61 catties, 11 taels, and the price is silver. 1 tael, 4 money, 7 cents and 9 cents." (Funing Prefecture: present-day Ningde, Fujian, under the jurisdiction of Fuding County).
“芽茶84斤12两,价银13两2钱2分;叶茶61斤11两,价银1两4钱7分9厘。”

This passage shows that Fuding merchants in the Ming Dynasty were used to selling tea at different prices according to their grades.

And Xiaobai, Dabai, and Narcissus bai refer to different varieties of white peony: the varieties of mixed breed tea(菜茶) are Xiaobai, Fuding Dabai, Fu'an Dabai, Zhenghe Dabai, and Fuding Big pekoe are called Dabai. The narcissus variety is called Narcissus White. Here I have to talk about the emergence of white tea tea varieties.

二、Emergence of Modern White Tea Tea Tree Varieties

After the silver needle was first created by Fuding in 1796 (the first year of Jiaqing), it was made from the buds of mixed breed tea(菜茶). However, due to the small buds of mixed breed tea(菜茶), the appearance and taste were not good, so it was not widely promoted.

(Mixed breed tea refers to a tea tree that is bred from seeds and is a shrub. Cultivation history of about 1000 years. Due to the long-term use of seeds for reproduction, natural variation and mixed shapes are caused.)

The turning point came in 1857 , when Chen Huan陈焕, a tea merchant from Bailiu Village柏柳村, Duoduo Town点头镇, Fuding, found a large white tea mother tree with many pekoe and exposed in Taimu Mountain. It was brought back to the village to breed and became today's Fuding Dabai.

In 1880 , another fine variety of white tea, Fuding Dahao, was selected and bred in Wangjiayang Village汪家洋村, Duoduo Town点头镇. So far, Fuding White Tea has the foundation for stable development.

Fuding Dabai tea and Fuding big pekoe tea are what we call "Huacha No. 1" and "Huacha No. 2" today. Among the national-level tea tree varieties and provincial-recognized varieties, As many as 25 kinds of tea trees are bred with Fuding Dabaicha as the male or female parent.

In 1880, a wild tea tree was planted in the old courtyard of Wei Nian's魏年 family in Tieshan Town铁山镇,Zhenghe. This tree is Zhenghe Dabai. After the wall collapsed and overwhelmed the tree, new seedlings sprang up unexpectedly. The locals inadvertently invented the method of growing tea seedlings by layering. The Zhenghe Dabai, discovered by chance, was gradually promoted until the Silver Needle was produced in 1890.

 

However, it is not a high-yielding variety. Compared with Fu'an white tea, which was successfully bred in Fu'an in 1960, it is 20-30 days later, has a short growth cycle, and is not as productive as Fu'an white tea. Therefore, when white tea is hot in recent years, local farmers generally prefer to plant other varieties with higher yields and earlier picking periods.

 

It is customary for people to call the silver needles produced by Fuding as "North Road Silver Needles" and Zhenghe's as "South Road Silver Needles".

When brewing, the Silver Needles produced in Fuding has a light apricot yellow soup color and a fresh taste; while the Silver Needles produced by Zhenghe generally has a mellow soup taste and a fragrant aroma.

三、The export history of white tea

Talking about the foreign trade of tea in modern Fujian, it can be traced back to the period of five trades in 1860.

Before, the export ports of tea were all located in Guangdong.

The main varieties of tea exported at that time were green tea, black tea and oolong tea. Especially black tea, because it is highly sought after by the British, has long been a popular hot product. According to Fuding's local records, there were as many as 20,000 boxes of black tea sold in China at that time, while only 2,000 boxes of white tea were sold.

White tea, as a niche tea at that time, also quietly entered the life of Europeans in 1890 (the sixteenth year of Guangxu). Some consumers in the European and American markets will add a little silver needles in black tea because they like the shape of silver needles to increase the beauty and quality.

White tea, as a niche tea at that time, also quietly entered the life of Europeans in 1890 (the sixteenth year of Guangxu). Some consumers in the European and American markets will add a little silver needles in black tea because they like the shape of silver needles to increase the beauty and quality.

In 1910, white tea began to sell well in Europe and the United States, and from 1912 to 1916 was the heyday of Silver Needles. At that time, Fuding,zhenghe and the two places produced more than 1,000 dan (1 dan = 50 kg) of silver needles each year, and each dan of silver needles was worth 320 silver dollars, which is equivalent to 3.2 silver dollars for 1 catty of silver needles. And this money can buy 100 catties of rice or 3 mu of land.

With the outbreak of World War I (1917-1921) and the influence of black tea production areas and craftsmanship, the black tea market shrank. In the midst of this change, white tea quickly occupied a place in export tea.

By 1924, with the temporary stability of the European situation, the export volume of white tea rose rapidly.

According to historical records, the purchase price of silver needles exported to Germany in 1926 was as high as 6,520 silver dollars per ton.

Driven by high returns, the output of Fujian white tea has grown substantially, ushering in an unprecedented development.

At that time, selling and making white tea became the latest and most fashionable standard for mate selection. The folks also compiled such a proverb: Marrying a girl does not admire a rich man, but only asks about tea and silver needles.

After the outbreak of the domestic anti-Japanese war, the production and export of Fujian white tea experienced the first low ebb. During this period, the national tea production dropped sharply. The output of Fujian white tea was reduced from 3,280 taels (1 tael = 50 kg) before the Anti-Japanese War to 1,100 taels in 1950, and export sales were even more dismal.

Until the founding of New China, white tea production gradually recovered. In 1951, it was restored to more than 2,500 taels. In 1956, China Tea Company decided to change the previous pattern of exporting white tea from Fujian and Guangdong ports, and instead export all white tea through Fujian.

In 1968, in order to meet the needs of the Hong Kong and Macao markets and increase the concentration of white tea soup, China Tea Fujian Company formally established a new process for making white tea at Fuding Bailin Tea Factory, which involves rolling the withered leaves for a short time and quickly, and then drying them quickly. dry to produce a new process of white tea.

After 1986, with the opening of the policy, a large number of tea companies invested in the foreign trade of white tea, which promoted the development and prosperity of white tea.

The rise and fall of Yifang Tea is still inseparable from the interpretation of Yifang.

In 2005, with the vigorous support and promotion of the Fuding government, Fuding White Tea began to emerge in China; in 2009, Fuding White Tea was awarded the National Geographical Indication Certification Mark.

Objectively speaking, although white tea has been exported for many years, the domestic market has not been tepid. There are very few old white teas left in the folk, and even if they exist, the grade is not high. So everyone must be cautious when buying old white tea.(Lapsangstore -10 years old white tea

Color comparison of one-year and five-year silver needle dry tea(Lapsangstore-Zheng Shan Tea  silver needle

In addition, while white tea is becoming more and more popular in the domestic market, it also affects the production of white tea in Yunnan. For example, Moonlight White from Yunnan, the production process is the same as that of white tea. It is not fried or kneaded. The front of the leaves is black and the back is white, just like the moonlight shining on the tea buds. Its tea soup is a change of yellow-red-yellow, and the taste is honey and fragrant.

Time flies so fast, white tea has been popular for 10 years. It is another different feeling to taste the small white tea cakes of 2014 again. The small aluminum bag packaging prevents the tea from deteriorating. After aging, the aroma of medicine and jujube is more obvious and rich than before, and the tea soup is thick and smooth.

Lin Feiying -  2014 GongMei 

Qing Yu
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世界上第一杯红茶——正山小种发展史 - Lapsangstore

世界上第一杯红茶——正山小种发展史

世界红茶,最早起源于我国福建省武夷山的桐木村(约公元1568年)。 彼时,自河南迁居桐木的正山堂江氏先祖因明兵驻扎错过了茶青加工时间,随机应变把茶叶进行揉捻,然后用马尾松柴架火烘焙,机缘巧合中创制出世界上最早的红茶——正山小种。 如今红茶产地遍布全球五大洲,但中国红茶的产量,却远不及其他国家,就连红茶鼻祖正山小种也未能跻身世界四大红茶。正山小种为何没落?印度如何成为世界红茶第一出口国?金骏眉什么时候出现的?它的研发意味着什么?
Qing Yu
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What is Aged Fir Black Tea?

What is Aged Fir Black Tea?

In Qing Dynasty Liang Zhangju wrote words in his poem “tasting tea”: "the taste of fir flavor, need to be quiet in mood and body."

 

Aged fir Tea has always been loved by tea lovers. The perfect combination of breed, time, growing environment and technology has formed the unique "fir flavor" of tea, which is also the hot topic of discussion among many tea lovers.

Why we called aged? Just its age? 

Some people said 30 years, some said 50 years, and other said 100 years.

For example, Zheng Shan Tang’s aged fir narcissus black tea. Its tea is over 100 years.

As we all know, all living things have the natural law of birth, aging, sickness and death, and tea tree is no exception. Because it is a broad-leaved subtropical evergreen tree, its rhythm of life is faster than that of deciduous trees and conifers.

The physiological functions of small trees and large-leaved tea trees will gradually decline after decades, and some tea trees with good ecological conditions or less human interference will have more years of growth. The physiological functions of small trees and large-leaved tea trees will gradually decline decades.

Hundred years tea tree is more common, but two or three hundred years will be less, some businesses out of their own interests, the age of the tree will be exaggerated to more than a thousand years, two thousand years is not scientific and precise.

Wuyi Mountain, Tongmu Pass has a long history of tea production and is the birthplace of black tea in the world. It is located in the Wuyi mountain National Nature Reserve, where every tree and grass in the reserve is strictly protected and felling is prohibited, so the tea trees in Tongmu Pass are well protected.

Zheng Shan Tang Organic Aged Fir Narcissus. The raw materials are picked at high altitude in the protected area. The old tea fir growing on the original ecological tea mountain is managed by semi-wildness. The tea trees are covered with moss. Following the concept of natural, healthy and clean tea making, every 500 Gram of 100-year-old organic old fir black tea made from thousands of standard shoots.

"Fir flavor" generally appears on arbor species. The currently known "Fir flavor" can be roughly summarized as follows:
1. Moss smell: The old fir trees are older, and the trunks are covered with moss, so it smells of moss.
2. Zongye fragrant: or brown rice flavour, is the regional fragrant formed by the mountain field where the tea tree is located.
3. Woody taste: The taste obtained from the varieties of the tea tree itself, over time, is more and more obvious on the old fir.

"The old fir which may cause the "sweet taste" is also related to the picking standard, the mountain field (the microclimate environment of the tea tree), the craftsmanship, and the brewing method.

According to the mountain environment, the tea maker and other conditions, the "fir taste" displayed by it is also different and has its own characteristics.

The old Fir tea trees in Tong Mu pass grow on the tea hill with an average altitude of more than 1,500 meters. The excellent growth environment allows tea trees to absorb the spirit of the mountains and the wild. At the same time, many exceptions have been added for picking.

Zheng Shan Tang 100-year-old native Old Fir black tea is made based on the tradition of over 400 years of making Lapsang Souchong black tea and combined with innovative JunMei craftsmanship. The dry tea sticks are tight and strong, and the color is golden, yellow and black.

After brewing, the color of the soup is golden and bright. Take a sip into your throat. The sweetness is suddenly born, the taste of fir is mellow, and the flavor is long. When you smell it, the nose overflows with the empty valley and the orchid fragrance, refreshing, and it is easy to feel like you are in the vast virgin forest; continuous After 12 brews, the taste is still full and sweet.

The heart is like a valley, the air is from the faint orchid, the century-old original old fir, embraces all the rivers, melts all things, and precipitates the taste of a cup of time.

Finally, I also remind everyone that the significant "Fir flavor" does not represent the quality of the tea. The taste varies from person to person, so you should choose tea according to your personal preference.

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