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茶叶中的内含物质对茶叶色香味的影响,及其功效

茶叶中的内含物质对茶叶色香味的影响,及其功效

茶是世界三大饮料之一,并被誉为 21 世纪的饮料,这既是因为茶文化的源远流长,更因为茶是一种天然的饮料,对人体具有营养价值和保健功效。研究表明,茶叶中含有大量的生物活性成分,包括茶多酚、茶色素、氨基酸、茶多糖、茶皂素、生物碱等多种有效成分,这些物质对茶叶的色香味有怎样的影响呢?它们各自又有什么功效呢?我们今天就来一一揭晓。

一、茶多酚

越嫩的茶,茶多酚相对含量也就越高。对于茶叶滋味来说,茶多酚具有涩味、苦味,茶多酚的含量越高,涩味、苦味就越强烈,六大茶类中,绿茶的茶多酚含量是最高的,所以很多人喝绿茶的时候,比较容易觉得苦、涩。另外我们经常宣传正山堂、骏眉中国红茶中的茶黄素含量高,茶叶品质好,那这个茶黄素,它也是由我们的茶多酚转化而来的。

茶多酚对人体有什么功效呢?

1、抗氧化作用,多指其清除自由基的作用。科学研究表明,癌症、衰老或其它疾病大都与过量自由基的产生有关联。所以抗氧化被保健品、化妆品企业列为主要的研发方向之一,也是市场最重要的功能性诉求之一。

2、对心血管疾病的影响,茶多酚可以调节血脂代谢,预防心脑血管疾病。

3、调节免疫功能作用,那么在疫情期间,我们多喝茶是有好处的。

4、杀菌消炎,茶多酚有极强的抑菌能力,平时我们也可以用茶叶去洗手洗脸,有脚气的人,可以推荐茶叶泡脚,效果非常明显呢。

5、抗辐射作用,电脑、手机等电子设备对我们人体是有辐射的,现代人使用的频率又非常高,建议多喝茶,降低辐射的影响。

二、茶色素

茶色素是一类存在于茶树鲜叶和成品茶中的有色物质,是构成茶叶外形色泽、汤色和叶底色泽的成分。在茶叶色素中,有的是鲜叶中已经存在的,称为茶叶中的天然色素,比如叶绿素,它就是天然色素,主要存在于茶树叶片中,是形成绿茶外形色泽和叶底颜色的主要物质,这里大家要注意,叶绿素是脂溶性色素,它是很难溶于水的,所以茶汤中的“绿”跟它没有关系的。茶叶中还有另一种色素来源途径,是茶叶在加工过程中形成的色素,比如茶黄素、茶红素,是红茶中比较重要的茶色素。

我们先来看茶黄素,茶黄素是红茶滋味和汤色的主要品质成分,对红茶的色、香、味及品质 都起着重要作用。茶黄素是红茶汤色“亮”的主要成分,是茶叶滋味强度和鲜度的重要成分, 同时也是形成茶汤“金圈”的主要物质。茶黄素的含量越高呢,鲜爽度越高,汤色的明亮度 越好,呈金黄色,含量越低呢,茶汤汤色越深暗。 茶红素,呈深红色,刺激性比较弱,滋味主要是甜醇,通常认为茶红素的含量太高有损茶叶 的品质,使滋味淡泊,汤色变暗。

茶黄素又被称为“人体的软黄金”,对人体有保健功效。

1、能有效平衡人体代谢水平,抑制能量摄入,纤体轻身;

2、清除自由基,美容养颜抗衰老;

3、增强血液活力,防止血管氧化,降血脂,预防心血管疾病

三、氨基酸是组成蛋白质的基本单位,蛋白质和我们茶叶的品质密切相关,1、蛋白质有助于茶汤清、

亮;2、茶叶中的可溶性蛋白能增进茶汤的滋味和营养价值;3、茶叶中的蛋白质水解成各

种氨基酸,影响茶叶滋味、香气和营养价值,与茶叶品质密切相关。蛋白质含量在一定程度

上可作为茶叶老嫩的指标之一,随着茶树新梢的生长,蛋白质含量逐渐下降。

茶叶中的氨基酸在茶叶加工过程中参与茶叶香气的形成,它所转化而成的挥发性醛或其

他产物,都是茶叶香气成分,某些氨基酸与茶叶的滋味及香气关系密切,是构成绿茶品质极

重要的成分之一,比如安吉白茶,氨基酸含量高出一般茶一倍,所以闻起来的鲜感、喝出来

的鲜爽度会更高。

茶树中有一种特别的氨基酸—茶氨酸,目前尚未在其他植物中发现。茶氨酸具有焦糖的香味

和类似味精的鲜爽度,对绿茶滋味有重要的作用。茶氨酸还能缓解茶的苦涩味,增强甜味。

可见茶氨酸不仅对绿茶滋味的形成有重要意义,也可以作为红茶品质的重要评价因子之一。

茶氨酸的功效:

1、降压功能,茶氨酸可通过调节脑中神经传达物质浓度,起到降低血压的作用。

2、镇静作用,我们喝茶的时候感到放松、平静、心情舒畅,现已证明这主要是茶氨酸的作用。

3、增加肠道有益菌群,保护人体肝脏,改善肾功能

四、生物碱

茶叶中的生物碱主要有咖啡碱、可可碱、茶叶碱,呈现出的味觉特征就是苦味。其中咖啡碱在茶叶生物碱中含量最多。一般越嫩的部分,咖啡碱的含量就越高。另外夏天气温比较高,茶树生长最旺盛,夏茶所含的咖啡碱含量也很高,所以我们喝夏茶的时候,苦味会相对重一些。

咖啡碱的功效:

1、对中枢神经系统兴奋作用。咖啡碱主要作用于大脑皮质,使精神振奋,工作效率和精确度提高,所以很多上班族喜欢喝咖啡来提神。(但这里要强调一下,我们茶叶中的咖啡碱含量是高于咖啡中的咖啡碱含量的,为什么叫咖啡碱,不叫茶叶碱呢?是因为这种物质最先在咖啡中发现的。

2、助消化、利尿。咖啡碱可以通过刺激肠胃,促进胃液的分泌,从而增进食欲,帮助消化。利尿作用是通过肾促进尿液中水的滤出率实现的。所以我们喝茶容易去厕所也是有原因的。

3、强心、解痉、平喘作用。主要由于咖啡碱可以松弛冠状动脉、促进血液循环和松弛支气管平滑肌,从而可以解痉平喘、治疗支气管咳喘。茶叶中的咖啡碱对大脑有兴奋作用,对心脏有一定的刺激性,一些特殊人群,如老年人、孕妇、儿童、心脏病人及神经衰弱患者喝茶一定要控制量。

五、茶多糖

茶鲜叶中的糖类物质包括多糖和可溶性糖。多糖主要有淀粉、果胶物质、纤维素等。从原料老嫩看,老叶中茶多糖的含量比嫩叶多。其中淀粉在加工过程,产生的可溶性糖类物质,可提高红茶的香气、汤色和滋味。茶叶中果胶物质与茶汤的黏稠度、条索的紧结度、外观的油润度有关。可溶性糖不仅使茶汤滋味甜醇,而且在红茶的加工过程中可发生焦糖化反应,对红茶焦糖香气的形成有重要作用。

茶多糖的功效

1、降血糖。在中国和日本民间,常有用粗老茶治疗糖尿病的经验。

2、增强机体免疫功能。茶多糖能够促进单核巨噬细胞系统发挥吞噬功能,增强机体自我保护的能力。

3、降血脂及抗动脉粥样硬化作用。茶多糖通过调节血液中的胆固醇以及脂肪的浓度,起到预防高血脂、动脉硬化的作用。

六、茶皂素

茶皂素味苦而辛辣,能起泡。我们冲泡茶叶的时候,第一泡经常能看到一些小泡泡,特别是岩茶中非常明显,很多人会觉得是茶叶不干净,选择倒掉,其实这些小泡泡主要就是茶皂素,它的功效主要是抗菌活性、抗炎和抗氧化作用。

Zhao Chen
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Lapsang souchong-The international China Black Tea

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The Lapsang Souchong is the first black tea in the world history. Originated from the Tongmu Pass in Wuyi Mountains, it has 400 years of history. Lapsang Souchong was called Bohea in Europe in early times. “Bohea” is the pronunciation in Minan dialect for Wuyi Mountainswhich according to the Family Pedigree of jiang, was born in around 1568 AD (Middle and Late Ming Dynasty). Keemun Black TeaAssam Black TeaDarjeeling Black TeaCeylon Highland Black Tea and other black teas in the world are originated from the Lapsang Souchong.

In 1662King Charles ll of England married the Portuguese princess Catherine who brought with her, as part of her dowry, a small chest of tea to the British Royal Family. As the new queenCatherine began to substituted wine with tea and introduced black tea to the upper class. Since then, from top to downAfternoon Tea swept the country till now.

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5 Acres of Wild Tea Forest Get Me Out Of Poverty

On August 18, Enshi Daily reported the story of Wang Shijie, a poor household in Badong County, who got out of poverty due to tea. The following is the oral content, and the full text is reproduced as follows: 

Original newspaper digital view link: http://szb.enshi.cn/esrb/content/202008/18/content_36489.html

At 6 o'clock in the morning on August 11, I drove a tricycle to my hometown 7 kilometers away and weed 0.6 Acres of konjac field.

It takes less than 10 days to weed and fertilize every year. With a bumper harvest in three years, 4 Mu of konjac can earn 30,000 yuan.

My name is Wang Shijie, and I am a poor household with a registered card. In 2018, our family of four moved from the hillside of Xiaoshennongjia Village, Yanduhe Township, Badong County to a resettlement site under the mountain. We lived in a new house of 100 square meters with three bedrooms and two living rooms without paying a cent. The front door is connected by a cement road and it is only 10 minutes away from the village clinic.

Badong County↑

I was born in the 1950s. I had eaten grass roots and leaves, and lived with my parents in thatched sheds. When i was 29, married and started a family. Carried thin stone slabs from the river valley to build a house. I could only carry it once a day, and it took six months to build a wedding house.

My wife Li Changying and I cultivate 1.67 acres of land, feed five or six pigs a year, and raise one child and one daughter. After a year of hardship, there was no savings.

In 2019, a piece of "pie" hit us: wild tea can sell for money! My family has 5 acres of mountain forest, and the forest is full of wild tea trees.

Badong County↑

In March 2019, Fujian Zhengshantang Tea Company came to Badong to develop the "Badong Red" series of black tea. The village party secretary Wang Shi first knew that wild tea from Xiaoshennongjia was a treasure, and that the original wild tea was a high-quality raw material for making black tea.

After Wang Shixian buildinging connection, Zhengshantang Tea Company came to the village to inspect the wild tea forest. Collect fresh leaf samples, after testing, they contain selenium, green and pollution-free.

After getting the wild tea test report, Wang Shixian was as happy as he had won the prize. He led the villagers into the mountains, counted wild tea trees, and found out a total of 200 acres of wild tea forests. At the same time, the villagers were organized to protect and manage the tea trees, and set the rules: no cut down thick trees, no fertilizer, clean the weeds around the tea trees, and shade the branches.

Badong Villagers Picking Tea ↑

In less than two months, the villagers began to pick wild tea. My wife and I collected 200 kilograms of fresh leaves in 10 days and sold them for 12,000 yuan.

The 78 relocation households in the village all went to their own mountain forests to pick wild tea, and the average household income increased by nearly 8,000 yuan. Wang Shixian worked as both a technician and purchaser, and the fresh leaves were transported into the tea workshop of Zhengshantang Tea Company.

This year's spring tea picking season, my wife and I brought dry food and teapots, and went into the mountains in the dark. We picked 270 kg of fresh leaves in half a month, and 17,000 yuan was put in our pockets. With 5 acres of nearly 3,000 wild tea trees, I became a big wild tea farmer in the village, and I can no longer hinder the village’s well-off.

At a mass meeting in the village not long ago, Wang Shi first broke the good news: the wild tea in the village was crowned with the name "Zhengshantang Badong Red Xiao Shennongjia Wild Tea", and won the prize in the 2019 World Black Tea Product Quality Selection Activity Product quality gold medal, only two black teas in the province won the gold medal. This is a gift from nature to Xiao Shennongjia Village, and it is also our confidence to take off the poor hat.

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Which kind of tea should i drink for health?

Which kind of tea should i drink for health?

Since ancient times

China has a tradition of drinking tea for health

There are hundreds of kinds of tea

Drinking tea.

According to personal preference

It also depends on individual physique

Conform to the four seasons and seasons

In order to achieve the purpose of health preservation

Traditional Chinese medicine believes that human physique can be divided into dryness and heat, as well as deficiency and coldness, while tea leaves can also be divided into coldness and warmness after different processing techniques.

Generally speaking, green tea, white tea, yellow tea, and lightly fermented oolong tea belong to herbal teas; heavily fermented oolong tea belongs to neutral tea, while black tea and dark tea belong to warm tea. Therefore, the physique is different, the tea nature is different, and tea drinking is also particular.

The herbal tea, represented by green tea, has a certain irritation to the stomach, and is suitable for people with a hot body and a strong stomach. People with weak stomachs should drink less or make tea less tea and more water.

The warm tea represented by black tea is warm and not dry in nature and less irritating to the stomach and intestines. It is suitable for people with cold stomach, cold hands and feet, and weaker physique. It has a wider range of applications.

Due to the difference in tea characteristics and the changes in the four o'clock, many people have formed the habitual thinking of drinking green tea in summer and black tea in winter, thinking that drinking black tea in summer will get inter fever. This is actually a misunderstanding.

Here we need to clarify the fact that black tea is warm rather than hot. Compared with green tea, it is less irritating to the stomach and intestines. Especially black tea has gone through the process of withering and fermentation, and the coldness of the tea leaves itself has disappeared.

Drinking black tea to get inter fever depends on one's physique on the one hand, and on the other hand the craftsmanship of black tea. Generally speaking, Clear drink tea represented by Jin Jun Mei has the characteristics of "fresh, fragrant, sweet and mellow", and its nature is gentle.

Modern people often have bad habits such as smoking, drinking, staying up late, and staying in an air-conditioned room for a long time in summer, often drinking cold drinks, which leads to diverse and changeable physiques, which are often difficult to simply divide by heat and cold.

To judge whether tea is suitable for you, you might as well see whether the body has symptoms of discomfort after trying it. This is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is gastrointestinal intolerance, which is prone to abdominal (stomach) pain after drinking tea; the other is excessive excitement, Insomnia or dizziness, weakness of hands and feet, light mouth, etc.

If you feel beneficial to your body after trying a certain tea, you can continue to drink it, otherwise you should stop.

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Summer Taste Guideline- Cold brewing tea

In China, because of the obvious temperature changing. The summer and the winter were been divided by three level. When the highest level arrived, temperature continues to stay high, drinking tea to quench thirst is a useful way to cool off the heat, and it is healthier and more effective than cold soft drinks.

However, the traditional method of making tea requires preparation of hot water, tea sets, and various standard. After brewing the tea, the tea must be cooled slightly before drinking. This is not friendly for we business staff while working or going out.

But "Cold brewing tea" is a popular way of brewing without hot water in recent years. You only need to put the tea into cold boiled water or mineral water, and after a certain period of waiting, you can get the color, fragrance and taste. Tea soup.

Cold brewing tea does not require boiling water. Instead, the tea leaves are soaked in plain water or mineral water at room temperature for 2-12 hours. It has the advantages of traditional tea drinking and the convenience of modern beverages. It is popular among office workers, students, drivers and mountaineers.

Compared with hot brewing, cold brewing tea has a lighter tea fragrance but a sweeter taste. When hot brewing, the aroma substances (aldehydes, phenols, etc.) in the tea will quickly decompose when exposed to high temperatures. When brewing with cold water, the fragrance and nutrients in the tea are slowly released.

The contents of tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine, water extracts and total sugars under high temperature brewing conditions are significantly higher than cold brewing tea, but it does not mean that the number of beneficial components extracted to the human body has decreased.

The theanine and arginine content is the highest when brewed at room temperature, which preserves the original taste and freshness of the tea to the utmost extent, and also reduces the bitterness of the tea when brewed in hot water.

Studies have shown that tea brewed in cold water has higher antioxidant activity than hot tea. Cold brewing tea takes a long time to brew tea, which is conducive to the complete expansion and expansion of the tea, and the beneficial substances in the tea are fully migrated into the tea soup without damaging the cell structure of the tea, so that a tea with more polyphenols can be obtained drink

From the perspective of drinking tea, hot brewing and cold brewing have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the former, the taste of tea is easy to release, especially for some good-quality teas. To feel the difference in the taste, you have to use hot water; to appreciate the color and shape of new tea, of course, you need hot water too.

The superiority of cold brewing tea, of course. First reason is to cool down and relieving heat.

Almost all tea can be used to make cold brew tea. Generally, recommend green teas, oolong teas, some black teas, some white teas and herbal teas.

The biggest feature of black tea is that it is sweet, which is most suitable for cold brewing, but not all black teas are suitable for cold brewing. For example, Lapsang Souchong black tea has too much pine smoke fragrance, it is suitable for hot brewing, Jin Junmei, Fei zi xiao and other Junmei black teas are mainly sweet. Suitable for cold brewing.

To drink cold brewed tea at home, you can steep it with tea leaves and cold water at a ratio of 1:50 and put it in the refrigerator for 4 to 8 hours before drinking. If you want to drink cold brewed tea when you are away, you can buy a bottle of ice mineral water, put in an appropriate amount of tea or tea bags, and the water ratio and steeping time are the same as when drinking at home.

The taste and type of tea depend on personal preference. Cold brewing can reduce the caffeine content of the tea soup and slow down the stimulation of the stomach. Therefore, it is also suitable for people with sensitive physique or weak spleen and stomach.

Although a cold diet is not good for the stomach, there is basically no problem as long as you do not booze before meals or after a lot of exercise. It is better to drink several times in small sips for the usual way of drinking. When conditions permit, it is good to drink cold tea after warming it.

Quench your thirst and cool off the heat, 0 sugar and 0 calories, do it yourself and make it easy to make cold. This summer, cold tea to save!

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Good tea matches Good tea sets.

Good tea matches Good tea sets.

Drinking good tea needs good sets to match.

It’s like seeing beauty in the river when you take a sip of good tea.

And like meeting an old friend when using good tea set.

Gather the beauty of the four seasons in a tea vessel

Adds a touch of freshness to the tea liquid.

Is the best interpretation of a good sip of tea

Tea sets were called "tea utensils" in ancient times, and they were born for drinking tea. In the beginning, due to the extensive tea drinking method, the tea utensils were relatively simple, and they were often mixed with food utensils and wine utensils. With the popularity of tea drinking, tea sets have gradually begun to develop in the direction of professionalism and art. It has become an important part of tea culture.

"Workers must first sharpen their tools if they want to do their jobs well." Water is the mother of tea, and tools are the father of tea. Cooking tea and tasting tea, paying attention to tea sets, has always been the case.

There are many tea utensils in "Dream of Red Mansions". It is written in the book: tea tray, tea cup, tea cup, tea bowl, tea cage, tea nest, teapot, tea stove, tea cup, tea spoon, tea bucket, saucer, saucer, tea hanger , Wind stoves, cover clocks, tea cups, tea grids, tea bowls...various kind.

The ancients were very particular about the utensils for tasting tea.

The tea wares here are rare treasures, which are difficult for modern people to imitate.

In the same way, because of the use of different colored pottery cups or porcelain cups, in addition to the obvious difference in the color of the tea soup, the flavor is also very different. Generally speaking, if you want to accurately grasp the color of tea soup, it is best to use a white porcelain cup. If you want the tea flavor to be fully reflected, the pottery cup is more suitable.

Nowadays, the commonly used white porcelain cups are generally white porcelain cups, which can truly reflect the color of tea soup, have moderate heat transfer and heat preservation, will not chemically react with tea, can obtain better color and fragrance, and are beautiful and exquisite in appearance. Suitable for brewing Jin Jun Mei.

Due to different tea drinking customs and different types of tea, the choice of tea sets is also different. But the general development trend is from complex to simple, from coarse to refined.

There are many times in life that will make you feel impetuous and bored, and drinking tea can slowly calm your mood. A set of pleasing tea sets and poetic cups allow you to see the big world from a small picture. It is as if the water waves and distant mountains are right in front of your eyes.

Tea in the hand is the landscape

In the mouth is life

Pour a cup of tea

Holding a book

Enjoy some delightful tea utensils

Green smoke hovering from the incense burner

Wind blowing from the window

The moss in the intervention room

Isn’t it beautiful?
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