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Exploring Tongmuguan's "QingLou"Retrieve

-The pine smoke&longan incense of Lapsang Souchong-

世界红茶源于中国,明朝中后期(约公元1568年),正山堂江氏先祖始创红茶,开创世界红茶之源,名正山小种,被公认为红茶鼻祖;后流传于世,方才有红茶漂洋过海而成世界统饮名茶。因红茶的兴盛,逐渐发展成为影响世人生活的下午茶风尚。

The world's black tea originated in China. In the middle and late Ming Dynasty (about 1568 AD), the ancestors of Zhengshantang Jiang's ancestors created black tea and created the source of the world's black tea. Only then did black tea cross the ocean and become the world's famous tea. Due to the prosperity of black tea, it has gradually developed into an afternoon tea fashion that affects people's lives.

全世界很多人都喝过正山小种,但知道并去过它发源地的人很少。东经117°,北纬27°,福建省武夷山最北端的桐木村桐木关,位于闽赣交界,平均海拔1200米,常年云雾缭绕,这里就是正山小种的唯一原产地。

Many people have drunk Lapsang Souchong, but few people know and have been to its birthplace. East longitude 117°, north latitude 27°,Tongmu Village, the northernmost point of Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province, is located at the junction of Fujian and Jiangxi, with an average altitude of 1,200 meters.

这里属于武夷山国家公园范围,进入需要当地人带领,报备后方能通过关卡。

This is within the scope of Wuyi Mountain National Park, and you need to be led by locals to enter, and you can pass the checkpoint after reporting.

茶山上植被繁茂,毛竹遍布,茶树便不规则地隐藏在毛竹的下方,它们肆意生长,少人打扰,一切皆来自地孕天养。

The vegetation on the tea mountain is lush, and the bamboos are all over the place. The tea trees are irregularly hidden under the bamboos. They grow arbitrarily and are rarely disturbed.

武夷山常年潮湿多雨,地处大裂谷核心的桐木村更是如此。每年桐木人的做茶季节,也正是雨水丰沛的时节。

所以,这里的茶人更能深刻地理解“看天做茶”的含义,也更能理解为何要在青楼中用烟熏,完成正山小种传统工艺中尤为重要的两道工序:萎凋和烘干。

Wuyi Mountain is humid and rainy all year round, especially in Tongmu Village, which is located in the core of the Great Rift Valley. The tea-making season of Tongmu people is also abundant rain.
Therefore, people can better understand the meaning of "making tea while watching the sky", and also better understand why smoke is used in the brothel to complete the two most important processes in the traditional craftsmanship of Lapsang Souchong: withering and drying.

“青楼”是用来制作正山小种红茶的初制厂房,主要用于摊晾、萎凋、烘焙和存放。“青楼”上下共有三层半,除底层外,每层有一人多高。

"Qinglou" is the primary factory for making Lapsang Souchong black tea, which is mainly used for drying, withering, baking and storage. There are three and a half floors up and down the "Qinglou". Except for the ground floor, each floor is as high as one person.

底层有灶膛,设有火坑和烟道,用于松木燃烧,传递热量及松烟。
一楼为烘焙间,将盛茶的圆竹筛斜插入顶部烘焙架上用于熏焙;
二楼为缓冲层,通过开关木门调节“青楼”的温度;
三楼为萎凋间,将茶青均匀摊晾在竹席上萎凋。

There is a stove on the bottom floor, with a fire pit and a flue, which are used for burning pine wood to transfer heat and pine smoke.
The first floor is the roasting room, and the round bamboo sieve for tea is inserted obliquely into the top roasting rack for smoking and roasting;
The second floor is the buffer layer, and the temperature of the "broodhouse" is adjusted by opening and closing the wooden door;
The third floor is the withering room, and the tea greens are evenly spread out on the bamboo mat to wither.

而且“青楼”前通常会堆放马尾松柴,因为茶叶制作过程中,不仅是焙干工序才燃烧松木,一开始就要松木加温萎凋了,因此传统工艺的正山小种红茶能品出淡淡的松烟香味。

 如今,因桐木一带是武夷山国家公园,当地的马尾松无法砍伐。所以,桐木一带现在用的这些马尾松都是从外面购买运回,而且必须相关手续齐全才能购买。


In addition, masson pine firewood is usually stacked in front of the "QingLou", because in the process of tea making, not only the pine wood is burned in the drying process, but the pine wood must be heated and withered at the beginning. Therefore, the traditional craft of Lapsang Souchong black tea can taste faint pine smoke aroma.
Today, because the Tongmu area is Wuyishan National Park, the local masson pine cannot be cut down. Therefore, the masson pine currently used in the Tongmu area are purchased and shipped back from outside, and the relevant procedures must be completed before they can be purchased.

萎凋时烟熏、摊晾和烘干时还要烟熏,几次反复烟熏后,松烟香才能入茶骨髓。

传统正山小种特有的烟熏味就是在这“青楼”里完成的,因而泡出来茶汤有松烟香、桂圆味,回甘清甜、润口绵长。

It should be smoked when it is withered, spread out and dried. After several times of repeated smoking, the aroma of pine smoke can enter the bone marrow of the tea.
The unique smoky flavor of traditional Lapsang Souchong is completed in this "QingLou", so the brewed tea soup has the aroma of pine smoke and longan, which is sweet, sweet and around in mouth.

“青楼”作为木制阁楼式建筑,其设计和建造凝聚着祖辈们的智慧,后又吸纳了茶界专家张天福的改进建议,对“青楼”进行了改造提升。
茶叶烘焙由明火改为暗火,增设火坑和烟道,让热量通过坑道送入室内进行烘焙。该传统茶叶初制车间不仅杜绝了火灾隐患、灵活的调节萎凋及烘干,而且“青楼”独特的建筑结构能充分利用松木燃烧所产生的热量及松烟,这在茶厂建设史上可谓一项创举。

As a wooden loft-style building, the design and construction of the "QingLou" embodies the wisdom of the ancestors. Later, it absorbed the improvement suggestions of Zhang Tianfu张天福, an expert in the tea industry, and renovated and upgraded the "QingLou".Tea baking is changed from open fire to dark fire, and a fire pit and flue are added to allow heat to be sent indoors through the tunnel for baking. This traditional tea production workshop not only eliminates fire hazards, flexibly adjusts withering and drying, but also has a unique architectural structure that can make full use of the heat and pine smoke generated by burning pine wood. 
This is a pioneering feat in the history of tea factory construction.

如今,传统烟熏的正山小种仍被老茶客喜爱,创新型的金骏眉亦广受爱茶人追寻。亦有正山堂·正山小种红茶,风味醇厚,具有独特的松烟香和桂圆干香,香气纯正高长,俘获了无数茶友的味蕾。

每到制茶季节,青楼的松烟,袅袅升起,见证着,四百五十余年来,正山茶人对传统红茶技艺的坚守和传承。

Today, the traditional smoky Lapsang Souchong is still loved by old tea drinkers, and the innovative Jin Junmei is also widely sought after by tea lovers. There are also Zheng ShanTang and Lapsang Souchong black tea, which has a mellow flavor, with a unique aroma of pine smoke and dried longan. The aroma is pure and long, capturing the taste buds of countless tea lovers.Every tea-making season, the pine smoke of the brothel rises, witnessing the persistence and inheritance of the traditional black tea skills by the people of Zheng ShanTang for more than 450 years.

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